Black holes are places of enormous gravity that swallow all planets, meteors, and other things that fall under their field . Scientists are very ignorant about it, and the closest one to the planet is 1,600 light years away.
One of the components of space that arouses the scientists’ most curiosity and motivates them to discover its composition and composition and what happens in and around it is what scientists call (black holes). That scientists recently discovered new facts. So it became the news of the hour for astronomers, what are these holes? And why does her story pop up every now and then? And why does it spark so much controversy? … Follow up with me what we don’t know about these holes.
What are black holes ?
A black hole is a cosmic cluster of enormous gravity. Which you pull everything around her until the light, A black hole forms when a massive star dies. This occurs when a star depletes all its internal thermonuclear fuel in the last stages of its life, reaching what is called singularity. In which its magnitude is zero, And infinite density. Although, black holes cannot be seen. Except that it represents about 90% of the universe’s content. It is reported that the American physicist John Wheeler gave it this name in 1969.
The origin of black holes
Black holes arise when giant stars explode in the later stages of their lives. These explosions are called supernovae. supernovae), Which leads to the scattering of most parts of the star in empty space. These explosions may leave cold residues in which nuclear fusion does not occur. Unlike smaller stars where merging occurs, As these processes help produce constant energy and external pressure. It is balanced with the drag forces of the internal gravitational pull from the mass of the star itself.
The absence of these forces in the cold remnants of a large star causes the star to collapse in on itself. The emerging black hole shrinks to a size of zero, And an infinite density, no object can escape from its enormous gravity, even light, So that the light of the star itself becomes trapped in its orbit, So this dark star is known as a black hole. Black holes pull out planets, Or light, Or any other cosmic body if it passes by, Then these objects reach the point of no return. This means that it entered the state of the horizon, This is the case in which it is impossible for this substance to escape from a black hole. Because that requires the speed of this object to move faster than the speed of light to escape from it.
Types of black holes
There are three main types of black holes. Where the type of star is determined according to its mass and size, These types are:
- Little black hole: Which is known as a primordial black hole, Or primary, Scientists believe that this type of hole is the size of an atom. However, its mass is enormous.
- A medium-sized black hole: This hole is called a stellar black hole. It is the most common. It can have a mass of about 20 times greater than the mass of the sun. It can also be placed inside a ball with a diameter of 16 km. Dozens of stellar black holes exist within the Milky Way.
- Big black holes: These are called supermassive black holes. supermassive). And the mass of these black holes is about the mass of a million suns. It can be placed inside a sphere whose diameter is roughly the same as the diameter of the solar system. Scientific evidence indicates that every large galaxy contains a supermassive black hole at its center. Where the great black hole at the center of the Milky Way is called an arc, Which has a mass equal to the mass of 4 million suns, It can be placed inside a sphere whose diameter is roughly equal to the diameter of the sun.
How do astronomers find their locations?
Black holes are not objects that can be seen. Because she swallows anything that enters her, Including light. But scientists know its existence when they discover a “field of no return”. Surrounding each of them, Which we mentioned earlier, Or when they discover massive emissions of X-rays emitted from its surroundings. Resulting from friction caused by material penetration into the field of no return, When it collides with that field, it is swallowed up by a black hole.
What is the latest scientific discoveries related to it?
Scientists have noticed in the past that some black holes are surrounded by huge halos of gases, which they called “donuts”. Any (cake) because its shape resembles a cake, Until recently, scientists thought that it was a regular homogeneous surrounding some black holes. And spin around it as the bicycle wheel rotates on its axis.
However, scientists at the US Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) made a recent discovery. And with a new type of telescope, They called it (Newstar) works with a new technology they called it. (Nuclear spectrum matrix), They discovered that the auras surrounding some black holes are much thicker and thicker than they thought. And it is also heterogeneous, It is rather dense, turbulent and irregular, And it’s not just a simple cake-like roller as they used to think.
- But scientists still call it a “cake”, And in English “written”, Because, as they say, like a cake, Are “edible”. Yeah, The black hole “devours” from time to time what it enters into from the components of these huge auras, In the opinion of some scholars, this is the reason for their heterogeneity and the reason for being turbulent masses of different densities and composition.
The latest detection also proved that all black holes are surrounded by these halos. And not some of them, And the reason for not seeing some of them and seeing some depends on the position of the surrounding halos in relation to the earth, Or for a telescope that captures her images.
Scientists at NASA confirm that this discovery related to halos and their formation is of great importance in understanding the growth and development of these supermassive black holes. And the galaxies that embrace it, They also affirm that they have long strides of research and investigation ahead. Because the more they decipher a mystery, the more new puzzles they find behind it.
Black holes are a means of time travel
Cosmologist Stephen Hawking advances by discovering one of the means that help in time travel, which is black holes. It is one of the methods that depend on the occurrence of a severe curvature of time and space and a connection between two separate points in space-time. Thus, if a closed path of time and space is achieved, it is possible to return to the starting point in time and space.
Some scholars argue that travel to the past could not happen. Rather, it is constantly heading towards the future. The lesson is that the speed of movement is close to the speed of light. Relativity means comparing the time of the passenger of the missile and the time of its remaining twin on the ground.
Based on this phenomenon, the famous English cosmologist offers another means of time travel, which is to exploit the phenomenon of black holes. (An area in outer space that arises from a huge stellar explosion and enjoys supergravity, so that every object or radiation that approaches it falls into it, and its volume is almost equal to zero). Hawking says that sending a spaceship in the future to one of those holes closest to us and orbit around it slows time for astronauts on board relative to the Earth’s population.