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Astronomy – What are its branches and what do astronomers offer?

Astronomy is the study of the sun, moon, stars, planets, comets, gas, galaxies, dust, and objects or phenomena that do not occur on Earth. Man has always gazed at the sky, searching for meaning and arrangement of the world around him. Although the movement of the constellations – shapes in the night sky – was the easiest to track. Many other celestial events have been observed. Like: Eclipses, lunar eclipses, planetary motion, And foretells them before they happen.


Astronomy has historically focused on observing celestial bodies. It is close to (astrophysics). Astrophysics scientifically involves the physical study of astronomy. Focuses on behavior, characteristics, And motion of those objects. however, Modern astronomy includes many elements of movement and characteristics of these objects, The terms are used interchangeably a lot these days.


What is the trend of modern astronomers? – astronomy

Modern astronomers turn to the theoretical and observational fields

  • Observational astronomy focuses on the direct study of stars, planets, galaxies, and the like.
  • Theoretical astronomy analyzes how systems have evolved.

Unlike a lot of other sciences. Astronomers cannot observe a system from birth to death. The life of worlds, stars and galaxies spans millions and billions of years. Astronomers rely instead, They contain snapshots of objects at different stages of development to determine how they form, evolve, and die.

So, The science of theoretical and observational astronomy is mixed together. As theoretical astronomers use the collected information to create simulations, While monitoring information is used to confirm patterns or indicate that they need to be improved.

What do astronomers do?

Early astronomers noticed patterns in the sky and tried to organize them in order to track and anticipate their movement – the so-called constellations (constellations) – these patterns helped people in the past measure the seasons. The movement of the stars and other celestial bodies was tracked all over the world. But it has spread clearly in China, And Egypt, Greece, Mesopotamia, Central America and India.


The idea of the astronomer as a lonely person sits opposite the telescope at night time. In fact, Faraway telescopes – on the surface or in space – carry out the most difficult astronomy tasks today. And these telescopes are controlled by computers, Astronomers study the data these computers generate.

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Astronomers have provided amazing images of space since the advent of (digital in particular) photography. It does not stop at providing information to scientists, Rather, it goes beyond to seduce people in general. Astronomy and spaceflight programs also contribute to the study of our planet. When missions prepare to search outside (or to travel to the moon and beyond) they look back and take pictures of our Earth from space.

Sub-fields of astronomy

Astronomy is divided into a number of sub-fields; This allows scientists to specialize in specific bodies and phenomena. Planetary astronomers focus on the growth, evolution and death of planets. While most of them study worlds within the solar system. Some use the growing evidence of planets orbiting other stars to predict their shape.

According to University College London, Planetary science is defined by: «A multidisciplinary field that includes aspects of astronomy, Atmospheric science, geology, Space physics, biology, And chemistry ».

Stellar astronomers direct their eyes towards stars, including black holes, nebulae, And white dwarves, And supernovae that survived after the death of the star.

The University of California (Los Angeles) says: “Stellar astronomers focus on the physical and chemical processes that take place in the universe.”

The sun is made up

Solar astronomers spend their time analyzing one star, our Sun.

  • According to NASA: “The amount and quality of light emitted from the sun varies on time scales from a fraction of a second to billions of years.” Understanding these changes may help scientists understand their impact on Earth. The sun also helps us understand how other stars work. Being the only star close enough to reveal details on its surface.
  • Galactic astronomers study our galaxy, the Milky Way. As astronomers of outer galaxies peek outside to determine how these groups of stars form, change and die. According to the University of Wisconsin-Madison: “Establishing patterns of the distribution, formation, and physical conditions of stars and gases helps us understand the history of the evolution of our galaxy.”

Cosmic astronomers focus on the universe completely, from its violent birth in the Big Bang through to its current development. Until his inevitable death. Astronomy often – but not always – searches for specific things that can be observed, while cosmic astronomy usually includes large-scale properties of the universe and mysterious, invisible, and sometimes purely theoretical things such as: string theory. And dark matter, black energy, and the idea of the multiverse (which we talked about earlier).Multiverse – Who inhabits these universes? .. Here is the explanation of this terrifying theory (Follow this article to learn more about the multiverse)

  • Astronomers rely on different wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum – from radio waves through visible light to X-rays and gamma rays – to study the vast expanse of objects in the universe. The first telescopes centered on a simple visual study of what can be seen with the naked eye. Many telescopes complete that day.

But when the light waves become of more or less energy, They move more or less quickly. This calls for the use of different telescopes to search for various longitudinal waves.
Radiation with more energy and shorter wavelengths appears as ultraviolet waves, X-rays and gamma rays. Whereas objects of lower energy send longer wavelengths, Like infrared and radio waves.

  • Astronomy is the oldest discipline of astronomy. It measures the sun, moon and planets. Accurate calculations of these motions allow astronomers in other disciplines to deduce the birth and evolution of planets and stars. Predict events such as eclipses, eclipses, meteor showers, and the emergence of comets. According to the Planetary Society: “Astronomy is the oldest method used to detect planets outside the solar system.” Which is still a difficult process.